The term yoga comes from a Sanskrit word that means yoke or union. Traditionally, yoga is a method joining the individual self with the Divine, Universal Spirit, or Cosmic Consciousness. Physical and mental
|Abdominal massage||Kneel with arms folded. Bend torso toward ground and lower forehead to the floor. Slowly raise up, switch arms, and repeat.|
|Boat||Lying on stomach, raise head, torso, arms, and legs off the ground and stretch. Arms should be outstretched and pointing towards feet.|
|Bow||Lying on stomach, hold ankles from behind and slowly raise head, torso, and thighs off floor.|
|Bridge||Lying on back with knees bent and feet flat on floor, raise pelvis off floor and arch back. Arms should be stretched out on floor with hands grasped.|
|C||On hands and knees, move head and buttocks as far left as possible. Inhale as you return center and repeat on the right side.|
|Camel||While kneeling, arch back and bend head back toward feet. Hold heels with hands and exhale while in movement.|
|Cat||On hands and knees, arch back and exhale while in movement, rounding shoulders and back.|
|Child||Kneeling with arms to the side, roll torso to floor and rest forehead on the ground.|
|Cobra||Stretched out on floor with stomach down, place elbows parallel to shoulders and raise torso up. Arms should straighten with hands flat on floor.|
|Corpse||Lie on back with feet and arms outstretched. Breathe deeply.|
|Dog||On hands and knees, dip back and lift head and buttocks up. Exhale.|
|Downward Dog||On hands and knees form an inverted V by pushing pelvis up and pressing hands and heels to floor. Exhale while in movement.|
|Half Cobra||Stretched out on floor with stomach down, place elbows parallel to shoulders and raise torso up. Keep arms bent and only raise torso off the ground as far as the navel.|
|Half Locust||Lying on stomach with hands beneath the body, raise legs one at a time while tensing buttocks. Repeat with other leg.|
|Half Lotus||Sit with legs crossed (only one leg should be over the other) and knees touching the floor.|
|Half-Moon||Standing with feet together, hold hands above the head with arms outstretched. Exhale and stretch to the left. Inhale and return to center. Repeat on other side.|
|Hand and thumb squeeze||Make a fist around thumb and squeeze. Release slowly and repeat on other hand.|
|Head to knee||Sitting with right leg outstretched and the left leg bent toward the body with the left foot touching the right leg, stretch head to right knee. Repeat on other side.|
|Hero||On hands and knees, cross left knee in front of right knee while sitting back between the heels. Hold heels with hands.|
|Knee down twist||Lying on back with arms outstretched, place right foot on left knee and swivel right knee to the left side of floor. While in movement, turn head to left side. Repeat on opposite side.|
exercises are designed to help achieve this goal, also called self-transcendence or enlightenment. On the physical level, yoga postures, called asanas, are designed to tone, strengthen, and align the body. These postures are performed to make the spine supple and healthy and to promote blood flow to all the organs, glands, and tissues, keeping all the bodily systems healthy. On the mental level, yoga uses breathing techniques (pranayama) and meditation (dyana) to quiet, clarify, and discipline the mind. However, experts are quick to point out that yoga is not a religion, but a way of living with health and peace of mind as its aims.
Yoga originated in ancient India and is one of the longest surviving philosophical systems in the world. Some scholars have estimated that yoga is as old as
|Locust||Lying on stomach with hands under the body, squeeze buttocks and lift legs up and outward. Keep legs straight.|
|Mountain||Standing with feet together, inhale while raising arms straight above the head and clasp hands together. Exhale while lowering arms.|
|Pigeon||Kneeling, slide the left leg straight out from behind and inhale, stretching torso up. Release and repeat on other side.|
|Plow||Lying on back, inhale and raise legs over head while keeping hands flat on floor for support.|
|Posterior stretch||Sitting with legs outstretched and feet together, stretch head to toes.|
|Rag Doll||While standing, exhale and bend over toward toes, cupping elbows with hands. Breathe deeply.|
|Seated angle||Sitting with legs outstretched in a V shape, stretch arms to toes and head to floor.|
|Shoulder crunch||With back straight, slowly lift shoulder to ear and lower. Repeat on other side.|
|Shoulder stand||Lying on back, lift legs up and support back with hands. Slowly angle legs over head and then extend upward.|
|Sphinx||Lying on stomach with elbows parallel to shoulders and palms on the ground, push torso up and look upward.|
|Spider||Press fingertips together and move palms in and out.|
|Spinal twist||Sit with right foot crossed over left leg and right leg held with left arm. Twist while supporting body with right hand on the floor. Repeat on other side.|
|Standing angle||Inhale and step into V position, stretching arms out and then down toward floor.|
|Standing yoga mudra||Standing with arms at sides, inhale and raise arms in front. Exhale and swing arms to back.|
|Tree||While standing, place one foot on the opposite thigh and outstretch arms above the head. Hold hands above with index fingers straight and the remaining fingers clasped.|
|Triangle||With arms parallel to floor and legs outstretched, turn one foot out and stretch to that side, keeping arms straight. Repeat on other side.|
|Upward Dog||Lying on stomach with hands down near the chest, lift torso off the floor while raising on toes. Hands should raise, but remain palms down. Arch back slightly.|
|Warrior I||Raise arms over head with palms together and lunge forward with one foot, keeping thigh parallel to the ground.|
|Warrior II||With arms straight out and parallel to the ground and legs in V, turn one foot out and lunge to the side, keeping hips straight.|
|Yoga Mudra||Sitting on heels, round torso to the ground with forehead to the floor while stretching arms overhead. Inhale while in movement and exhale while lowering arms.|
5,000 years; artifacts detailing yoga postures have been found in India from over 3000 B.C. Yoga masters (yogis) claim that it is a highly developed science of healthy living that has been tested and perfected for all these years. Yoga was first brought to America in the late 1800s when Swami Vivekananda, an Indian teacher and yogi, presented a lecture on meditation in Chicago. Yoga slowly began gaining followers, and flourished during the 1960s when there was a surge of interest in Eastern philosophy. There has since been a vast exchange of yoga knowledge in America, with many students going to India to study and many Indian experts coming here to teach, resulting in the establishment of a wide variety of schools. Today, yoga is thriving, and it has become easy to find teachers and practitioners throughout America. A recent Roper poll, commissioned by Yoga Journal, found that 11 million Americans do yoga at least occasionally and six million perform it regularly. Yoga stretches are used by physical therapists and professional sports teams, and the benefits of yoga are being touted by movie stars and Fortune 500 executives. Many prestigious schools of medicine have studied and introduced yoga techniques as proven therapies for illness and stress. Some medical schools, like UCLA, even offer yoga classes as part of their physician training program.
Yoga has been used to alleviate problems associated with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, migraine headaches, asthma, shallow breathing, backaches, constipation, diabetes, menopause, multiple sclerosis, varicose veins, and many chronic illnesses. It also has been studied and approved for its ability to promote relaxation and reduce stress. On the other hand, some researchers are now questioning claims that yoga is beneficial for such conditions as carpal tunnel syndrome.
As of late 2002, yoga is increasingly recommended for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and other disorders in premenopausal women, in Europe as well as in the United States.
Yoga can also provide the same benefits as any well-designed exercise program, increasing general health and stamina, reducing stress, and improving those conditions brought about by sedentary lifestyles. Yoga has the added advantage of being a low-impact activity that uses only gravity as resistance, which makes it an excellent physical therapy routine; certain yoga postures can be safely used to strengthen and balance all parts of the body. A study published in late 2002 summarized recent findings about the benefits of yoga for the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The review noted that yoga is still viewed as a "trendy" form of exercise rather than one with documented medical benefits.
Meditation has been much studied and approved for its benefits in reducing stress-related conditions. The landmark book, The Relaxation Response, by Harvard cardiologist Herbert Benson, showed that meditation and breathing techniques for relaxation could have the opposite effect of stress, reducing blood pressure and other indicators. Since then, much research has reiterated the benefits of meditation for stress reduction and general health. Currently, the American Medical Association recommends meditation techniques as a first step before medication for borderline hypertension cases. Some 2002 studies indicate that yogic meditation by itself is effective in lowering serum cholesterol as well as blood pressure.
Modern psychological studies have shown that even slight facial expressions can cause changes in the involuntary nervous system; yoga utilizes the mind/body connection. That is, yoga practice contains the central ideas that physical posture and alignment can influence a person's mood and self-esteem, and also that the mind can be used to shape and heal the body. Yoga practitioners claim that the strengthening of mind/body awareness can bring eventual improvements in all facets of a person's life.
(C. 2ND CENTURY B.C.)
There is little historical information available on Patanjali, who is credited with developing yoga, one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy. Several scholars suggest several persons may have developed yoga under the pseudonym of Patanjali. In any case, Patanjali existed around 150 B.C. in India. He developed yoga based on a loose set of doctrines and practices from the Upanishads, themselves a set of mystical writings. The Upanishads are part of the Aranyakas, philosophical concepts that are part of the Veda, the most ancient body of literature of Hinduism. Patanjali gave these combined philosophical and esoteric writings a common foundation in his Yoga Sutra, a set of 196 concise aphorisms (wise sayings) that form the principles of yoga. He also drew upon Samkhya, the oldest classic system of Hindu philosophy. Patanjali's yoga accepted Samkhya metaphysics and the concept of a supreme soul. He established an eight-stage discipline of self-control and meditation. The individual sutras (verses) lay out the entire tradition of meditation. They also describe the moral and physical disciplines needed for the soul to attain absolute freedom from the body and self.
Ken R. Wells
Classical yoga is separated into eight limbs, each a part of the complete system for mental, physical, and spiritual well-being. Four of the limbs deal with mental and physical exercises designed to bring the mind in tune with the body. The other four deal with different stages of meditation. There are six major types of yoga, all with the same goals of health and harmony but with varying techniques: hatha, raja, karma, bhakti, jnana, and tantra yoga. Hatha yoga is the most commonly practiced branch of yoga in America, and it is a highly developed system of nearly 200 physical postures, movements, and breathing techniques designed to tune the body to its optimal health. The yoga philosophy believes the breath to be the most important facet of health, as the breath is the largest source of prana, or life force, and hatha yoga utilizes pranayama, which literally means the science or control of breathing. Hatha yoga was originally developed as a system to make the body strong and healthy enough to enable mental awareness and spiritual enlightenment.
There are several different schools of hatha yoga in America; the two most prevalent ones are Iyengar and ashtanga yoga. Iyengar yoga was founded by B.K.S. Iyengar, who is widely considered as one of the great living innovators of yoga. Iyengar yoga puts strict emphasis on form and alignment, and uses traditional hatha yoga techniques in new manners and sequences. Iyengar yoga can be good for physical therapy because it allows the use of props like straps and blocks to make it easier for some people to get into the yoga postures. Ashtanga yoga can be a more vigorous routine, using a flowing and dance-like sequence of hatha postures to generate body heat, which purifies the body through sweating and deep breathing.
The other types of yoga show some of the remaining ideas that permeate yoga. Raja yoga strives to bring about mental clarity and discipline through meditation, simplicity, and non-attachment to worldly things and desires. Karma yoga emphasizes charity, service to others, non-aggression and non-harming as means to awareness and peace. Bhakti yoga is the path of devotion and love of God, or Universal Spirit. Jnana yoga is the practice and development of knowledge and wisdom. Finally, tantra yoga is the path of self-awareness through religious rituals, including awareness of sexuality as sacred and vital.
A typical hatha yoga routine consists of a sequence of physical poses, or asanas, and the sequence is designed to work all parts of the body, with particular emphasis on making the spine supple and healthy and increasing circulation. Hatha yoga asanas utilize three basic movements: forward bends, backward bends, and twisting motions. Each asana is named for a common thing it resembles, like the sun salutation, cobra, locust, plough, bow, eagle, and tree, to name a few. Each pose has steps for entering and exiting it, and each posture requires proper form and alignment. A pose is held for some time, depending on its level of difficulty and one's strength and stamina, and the practitioner is also usually aware of when to inhale and exhale at certain points in each posture, as breathing properly is another fundamental aspect of yoga. Breathing should be deep and through the nose. Mental concentration in each position is also very important, which improves awareness, poise, and posture. During a yoga routine there is often a position in which to perform meditation, if deep relaxation is one of the goals of the sequence.
Yoga routines can take anywhere from 20 minutes to two or more hours, with one hour being a good time investment to perform a sequence of postures and a meditation. Some yoga routines, depending on the teacher and school, can be as strenuous as the most difficult workout, and some routines merely stretch and align the body while the breath and heart rate are kept slow and steady. Yoga achieves its best results when it is practiced as a daily discipline, and yoga can be a life-long exercise routine, offering deeper and more challenging positions as a practitioner becomes more adept. The basic positions can increase a person's strength, flexibility, and sense of well-being almost immediately, but it can take years to perfect and deepen them, which is an appealing and stimulating aspect of yoga for many.
Yoga is usually best learned from a yoga teacher or physical therapist, but yoga is simple enough that one can learn the basics from good books on the subject, which are plentiful. Yoga classes are generally inexpensive, averaging around 10 dollars per class, and students can learn basic postures in just a few classes. Many YMCAs, colleges, and community health organizations offer beginning yoga classes as well, often for nominal fees. If yoga is part of a physical therapy program, its cost can be reimbursed by insurance.
Yoga can be performed by those of any age and condition, although not all poses should be attempted by everyone. Yoga is also a very accessible form of exercise; all that is needed is a flat floor surface large enough to stretch out on, a mat or towel, and enough overhead space to fully raise the arms. It is a good activity for those who cannot go to gyms, who do not like other forms of exercise, or have very busy schedules. Yoga should be done on an empty stomach, and teachers recommend waiting three or more hours after meals. Loose and comfortable clothing should be worn.
People with injuries, medical conditions, or spinal problems should consult a doctor before beginning yoga. Those with medical conditions should find a yoga teacher who is familiar with their type of problem and who is willing to give them individual attention. Pregnant women can benefit from yoga, but should always be guided by an experienced teacher. Certain yoga positions should not be performed with a fever, or during menstruation.
Beginners should exercise care and concentration when performing yoga postures, and not try to stretch too much too quickly, as injury could result. Some advanced yoga postures, like the headstand and full lotus position, can be difficult and require strength, flexibility, and gradual preparation, so beginners should get the help of a teacher before attempting them.
Yoga is not a competitive sport; it does not matter how a person does in comparison with others, but how aware and disciplined one becomes with one's own body and limitations. Proper form and alignment should always be maintained during a stretch or posture, and the stretch or posture should be stopped when there is pain, dizziness, or fatigue. The mental component of yoga is just as important as the physical postures. Concentration and awareness of breath should not be neglected. Yoga should be done with an open, gentle, and non-critical mind; when one stretches into a yoga position, it can be thought of as accepting and working on one's limits. Impatience, self-criticism, and comparing oneself to others will not help in this process of self-knowledge. While performing the yoga of breathing (pranayama) and meditation (dyana), it is best to have an experienced teacher, as these powerful techniques can cause dizziness and discomfort when done improperly.
Some people have reported injuries by performing yoga postures without proper form or concentration, or by attempting difficult positions without working up to them gradually or having appropriate supervision. Beginners sometimes report muscle soreness and fatigue after performing yoga, but these side effects diminish with practice.
Research & general acceptance
Although yoga originated in a culture very different from modern America, it has been accepted and its practice has spread relatively quickly. Many yogis are amazed at how rapidly yoga's popularity has spread in America, considering the legend that it was passed down secretly by handfuls of followers for many centuries.
There can still be found some resistance to yoga, for active and busy Americans sometimes find it hard to believe that an exercise program that requires them to slow down, concentrate, and breathe deeply can be more effective than lifting weights or running. However, ongoing research in top medical schools is showing yoga's effectiveness for overall health and for specific problems, making it an increasingly acceptable health practice.
Training & certification
Many different schools of yoga have developed in America, and beginners should experiment with them to find the best-suited routine. Hatha yoga schools emphasize classical yoga postures, and raja yoga schools concentrate on mental discipline and meditation techniques. In America, there are no generally accepted standards for the certification of yoga teachers. Some schools certify teachers in a few intensive days and some require years of study before certifying teachers. Beginners should search for teachers who show respect and are careful in their teaching, and should beware of instructors who push them into poses before they are ready.
Ansari, Mark, and Liz Lark. Yoga for Beginners. New York: Harper, 1999.
Bodian, Stephan, and Georg Feuerstein. Living Yoga. New York: Putnam, 1993.
Carrico, Mara. Yoga Journal's Yoga Basics. New York: Henry Holt, 1997.
Iyengar, B.K.S. Light on Yoga. New York: Schocken, 1975.
Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Chapter 10, "Ayurvedic Medicine and Yoga: From Buddha to the Millennium." New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
Engebretson, J. "Culture and Complementary Therapies." Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery 8 (November 2002): 177–184.
Gerritsen, A. A., M. C. de Krom, M. A. Struijs, et al. "Conservative Treatment Options for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials." Journal of Neurology 249 (March 2002): 272–280.
Kronenberg, F., and A. Fugh-Berman. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Review of Randomized, Controlled Trials." Annals of Internal Medicine 137 (November 19, 2002): 805–813.
Manocha, R., G. B. Marks, P. Kenchington, et al. "Sahaja Yoga in the Management of Moderate to Severe Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial." Thorax 57 (February 2002): 110–115.
Raub, J. A. "Psychophysiologic Effects of Hatha Yoga on Musculoskeletal and Cardiopulmonary Function: A Literature Review." Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8 (December 2002): 797–812.
Tonini, G. "Dysmenorrhea, Endometriosis and Premenstrual Syndrome." [in Italian] Minerva Pediatrica 54 (December 2002): 525–538.
Vyas, R., and N. Dikshit. "Effect of Meditation on Respiratory System, Cardiovascular System and Lipid Profile." Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 46 (October 2002): 487–491.
Yoga International Magazine. R.R. 1 Box 407, Honesdale, PA 18431. <http://www.yimag.com>.
Yoga Journal. P.O. Box 469088, Escondido, CA 92046. <http://www.yogajournal.com>.
American Yoga Association. <www.americanyogaassociation.org.>.
International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT). 4150 Tivoli Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Yoga Research and Education Center (YREC). 2400A County Center Drive, Santa Rosa, CA 95403. (707) 566-0000. <www.yrec.org.>.
Yoga Directory. <http://www.yogadirectory.com>.
Yoga Finder Online. <http://www.yogafinder.com>.
Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.